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Avogadro's theory

Avogadro's Theory

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Avogadro’s Law
Gay-Lussac also discovered that the ratio in which gases combine to form compounds can be expressed in whole numbers: for instance, water is composed of one part oxygen and two parts hydrogen. In the language of modern science, this would be expressed as a relationship between molecules and atoms: one molecule of water contains one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms.

In the early nineteenth century, however, scientists had yet to recognize a meaningful distinction between atoms and molecules. Avogadro was the first to achieve an understanding of the difference. Intrigued by the whole-number relationship discovered by Gay-Lussac, Avogadro reasoned that one liter of any gas must contain the same number of particles as a liter of another gas. He further maintained that gas consists of particles—which he called molecules—that in turn consist of one or more smaller particles.

In order to discuss the behavior of molecules, it was necessary to establish a large quantity as a basic unit, since molecules themselves are very small. For this purpose, Avogadro established the mole, a unit equal to 6.022137 × 1023 (more than 600 billion trillion) molecules. The term “mole” can be used in the same way we use the word “dozen.” Just as “a dozen” can refer to twelve cakes or twelve chickens, so “mole” always describes the same number of molecules.

Just as one liter of water, or one liter of mercury, has a certain mass, a mole of any given substance has its own particular mass, expressed in grams. The mass of one mole of iron, for instance, will always be greater than that of one mole of oxygen. The ratio between them is exactly the same as the ratio of the mass of one iron atom to one oxygen atom. Thus the mole makes if possible to compare the mass of one element or one compound to that of another.

Avogadro’s law describes the connection between gas volume and number of moles. According to Avogadro’s law, if the volume of gas is increased under isothermal and isobarometric conditions, the number of moles also increases. The ratio between volume and number of moles is therefore a constant.

— Jessica · Aug 14, 07:59 AM · #

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